Adhyay 13

Description of Supreme God

Definition of Kshetr and Kshetragya

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 1 to 6 there is description of the body and the defects within this body (lust, anger, greed, attachment, false-ego etc) and the formless state and the ten senses and the sense-objects present in them, sound-touch-form-taste-smell etc. He who knows all these causes is known as Kshetragya (Pandit). God, the narrator of Gita, is saying that know me alone as Kshetragya.

The meaning of Pind is body (here, body is called as Kshetr) and the meaning of Kshetragya is, he who knows about the body that which God is situated where in the lotuses in the body and where is the Sushmna dwaar (gate). He who knows about the lotuses is known as Kshetragya (Pandit) i.e. the knower of the body. Its deccription is given in the verses (mantras of Vedas) and has been described by many sages as well.

Declaration of the Worship of Other Gods as Adulterous Devotion

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 7 to 11, it is stated that he who by not being sad and happy by honour, free from pretentious devotion, non-violent, forgiving, serving Guruji with faithful devotion and with purity making the soul situated inside steadfast and by being completely detached (by removing attachment from every object), with no desire and attachment in wife-son-wealth etc and resigning the attainment or non-attainment of the worshipped God and the non-worshipped God to God’s wish, resorting to the supreme knowledge with balanced mind, only does my unadulterous devotion {which is worship of only one God; the sadhna of other Gods is said to be adulterous; like a prostitute who instead of sticking to one man wanders her mind. She does not get any respect anywhere.} Thus, instead of worshipping one Supreme God, worship of all other Gods is given the name of adulterous devotion. To have no affection towards a person who does not have devotional nature, constantly thinking about about the religious knowledge (knowledge of bhakti), to behold everyone in the form of Tattavgyan (absolute knowledge) (equally), this is superior knowledge. Everything else opposed to this is ignorance. To intoxicate: to consume alcohol, tobacco, meat, hemp; to have love and hatred; to worship other gods (worship of gods-goddesses, fast, pilgrimage, ganga bath, circumambulation of Govardhna ‘Giriraj’, idol worship in temple) etc is called as Ignorance and adulterous devotion.

Only the Supreme God is Worthy of Being Known and Worshipped

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 12 to 18, God (Kaal-Brahm) is saying that He who is worthy of being known, knowing whom one attains Parmanand, the ultimate bliss (the eternal state), I will state the knowledge of that God. That Param Akshar Brahm (Supreme God – SatPurush) who has no beginning (who has no origin), who can neither be called ‘Sat’ nor ‘Asat’ {the meaning of ‘Sat’ is Akshar (imperishable) and ‘Asat’ is Kshar (perishable). So, can not be called either of these because this God is someone else. Like in Gita Ji Adhyay 15 Shlok 16, it is said that there are two Gods – one is Kshar (Asat – perishable) and the second one is Akshar (Sat – imperishable). Then in Adhyay 15 Shlok 17, has said that in reality the imperishable / eternal God is someone other than these who is called as the Eternal God, who by entering into the three loks sustains everyone (see Gita Ji Adhyay 15 Shlok 16 and 17).}

The purport of – he has hands-feet, heads-eyes and ears in all the directions is that he is all-pervading, omnipresent i.e. noone is out of His reach and sight. He only is situated with everyone contained in Him. Garib Das Ji Maharaj states that –

Jaake ardh room par sakal pasaara, aisa Purna Brahm hamaara |
Garib, anant koti brahmand ka, ek rati nahin bhaar |
Satguru Purush Kabir hain kul ke sirjan haar ||

That God (Purna Brahm) only is the knower of all the senses. Because that Lord only also gave rise to Brahm (Kaal). {In Gita Ji Adhyay 3 Shlok 14, 15 it is said that all living beings arise from food grain, food grain from rain, rain arises from yagya, yagya from virtuous actions; actions arose from Brahm; Brahm (Kaal) arose from the Immortal (Param Akshar) God. And that same Param Akshar Brahm (the Supreme God / Purna Parmatma) is situated in all the yagyas (is present, is worshippable, is the Adhiyagya, the giver of all fruits of yagyas).} He is devoid of all the senses, is detached, is the sustainer of all and while residing in Satlok controlling everyone here with His formless power, is the experiencer of the gunas, existing inside and outside all the living beings and the moving and the non-moving (being the prime cause of everything), because of being subtle (invisible) in the form of formless power, is not known (Avigya) i.e. nobody can know that Immortal /Eternal God (SatPurush). Because of being the doer of all tasks by formless power, he is the nearest situated in all the living beings’s heart (immediately gives rewards for accomplishment of tasks, therefore is not far) and is also far away in Satlok. {Because of not being aware of that God (SatPurush), He is also far away because He can be seen only by obtaining naam from a Complete Guru who gives Satnaam and Saarnaam and by remaining within the bounds of Guruji throughout life; otherwise not.}

Because of being the all-powerful one (Avibhaktm' = undivided), the power of that God is situated in all the living beings (the all-powerful and all-pervading in infinite brahmands). He only (God) is worthy of being known; is the sustainer and originator of all the brahmands, which include the twenty-one brahmands of Kaal Brahm, which further include the loks of Shri Brahma, Shri Vishnu, Shri Shiv along with the fourteen loks, heaven, mortal and nether world and the seven sankh brahmands of ParBrahm, that God is said to be beyond the darkness of ignorance i.e is said to be Gyan roop (the form of knowledge). He is fully knowledgeable.

Gyaan sagar ati ujaagar, nirvikaar niranjanm |
Brahm gyani maha dhyaani, sat sukrit duHkh bbhanjanm ||

Respected Garib Das Ji Maharaj explains about that same Supreme God in his sacred speech ‘Brahmvedi’ and that Supreme God only is situated in everyone’s heart in a distinct form. Like, the sun although present in one place appears to all the living being to be with them, but the eyes can see it, therefore, it can be said that the sun is present in the eyes in a special way because only the eyes can see the light. The quality of warmth (sun) can only be felt. Similarly the Supreme God even when residing in Satlok also dwells inseparably in the heart-lotus (charka) of every living being with the soul like the warmth of the sun.

Thus Kshetr (Body) and the supreme knowledge which is worthy of being known (Supreme God-Purna Brahm) have been described in brief. (Mad'bhakt) – Matbhakt, a bhakt who follows the opinions (mat'), acquires those same opinions. The translators of Gita have written the meaning of ‘mad'bhakt’ as ‘my bhakt’. If we split the word Shrimad'bhagwad'Gita then it would become Shri-mat-bhagwat-Gita. Here, the meaning of Shrimat' is (superior most /) very good thoughts, which God delivered (mat); the meaning of Gita is knowledge. Therefore the meaning of Shrimadbhagwad Gita is the superior opinion which God himself gave, it is that knowledge. These greatmen have knowledge only upto God Krishna (Vishnu) and besides this, because of having information about some Brahm (formless God), have written the meaning of Mad'bhakt as ‘my bhakt’. Its correct implied meaning is ‘Mat (opinion) Bhakt (devotee)’ which means after knowing the above-mentioned knowledge (mat), the viewpoints/thoughts, that Madbhakt acquires thoses thoughts only. A bhagwat bhakt who after knowing this superior knowledge acquires those opinions, he escapes from Kaal’s (Brahm) trap. Even in Gita Ji Adhyay 7 Shlok 24, it is said that foolish people do not know my inferior (bad), permanent (eternal) Kaal character that I am invisible and never appear in form before anyone. Therefore they consider me having come in human (Krishna) form i.e. I never come in human (in form) form.

Of other translators, in the translation of this Shlok some have written the meaning of Anuttam word as it is – anuttam = anuttam. Some have written anuttam = superior most / best. The meaning of uttam is good (superior) and anuttam is bad i.e. inferior.

Because of not having this complete knowledge and out of emotions and theism themselves are in darkness and the readers also become ignorant. Instead of giving the correct meaning they have concluded wrong meanings. Have written the meaning of anuttam as superior most.

The Supreme God and Rashtri Prakriti, both are Beginningless

In Shlok 19 has said that Rashtri Prakriti (First Maya i.e. who is also known as Rajeshwari Shakti by whom the Supreme God has secured all the brahmands) and Purush (the Supreme God), know both of these as beginningless (ever-lasting and who has nr origin). Because initially Purush (Supreme God-Purna Parmatma) used to live alone in Anami lok. All the souls were contained in the Supreme God’s body. Later, KavirDev, the Supreme God created the lower three loks: Agam lok, Alakh lok and Satlok by the power of his word and SatPurush Himself also appeared in Satlok by His word-power; hence is known as Swambhu (self-existent) and created Aadi Maya (Prakriti) from Param Hans (supreme Hans) by the power of word hans, and inserted all the living beings into Prakriti. Therefore when ParBrahm (Akshar Purush) causes great destruction, at that time he will finish Jyoti Niranjan Omkaar along with all the loks. At that time Prakriti is kept in ParBrahm’s lok by turning her into a subtle form, and Brahm (Jyoti Niranjan Kaal) is kept in seed form and he arises again. Then this Prakriti is with him in the form of a girl. Then the lower loks of Kaal (Brahm) are created. Consequently Brahm (Jyoti Niranjan) God after doing intercourse with his Prakriti (Ashtangi) gives rise to three superior souls and gives them the designation of Shri Brahma, Shri Vishnu and Shri Mahesh. These are the new superior souls. The previous Vishnu, Brahma and Shiv go into the 84 lakh births.

This Kaal himself resides in Brahm lok in three forms (Mahavishnu-MahaBrahma-MahaShiv). And thereafter giving rise to the three children makes them unconscious and keeps nurturing them. On becoming young puts them in separate places. As a result of which they do not know where they have come from. Therefore in this Adhyay Shlok 19 has called Prakriti and the Supreme God to be eternal and know the defects (lust, anger, greed, affection, and love-hatred) and gunas (Rajgun-Brahma, Satgun-Vishnu and Tamgun-Shiv) also to be arising from Prakriti (Aadi Maya – Prakriti).

In Shlok 20, it is said that the Prakriti is the prime cause of the origin of the world and for the actions, and Purush (SatPurush) is said to be the cause of the joy and sorrow of His devotee because Purna Brahm (Param Akshar Purush) despite being omnipresent, the almighty and situated in all the living beings can not eradicate the sufferings of those living beings without proper sadhna (without meeting a Complete Saint who gives Satnaam and Saarnaam). That Supreme God, who by providing power to the living being operates him in the living being state, alone is said to be the casue of joy and sorrow.

In Shlok 21, it is said that the God dwelling in Prakriti (because being omnipresent like sun, SatPurush is also situated in Prakriti) is the Supreme God only who also enjoys the worship of the three gunas, Rajgun-Brahma Ji, Satgun-Vishnu Ji and Tamgun-Shiv Ji who are born of Prakriti. That Purna Brahm only is the one who gives rewards to everyone based on their deeds according to the rules. Therefore is said to be the enjoyer of the gunas. Due to association (worship) with the gunas living beings take birth in good and bad wombs. In Shlok 22, it is stated that this SatPurush only (Supreme God) is the spectator (who sees everyone from inside and outside) and the permitter (who gives permission for actions according to the deeds/karmas), the sustainer and because of being (Sarvasva) the essence of everything / omnipresent is Maheshwar (Purna Brahm) who is also present in this body (Kshetr).He is also known as Kshetri or (Shareeri) bodily. He is called as Parmatma (Akaal Purush).

In Shlok 23, it is said that he who comes to know about the God (Purna Brahm) and Prakriti (Ashtangi) along with the gunas (Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh) in this way, he by worshipping the Purna Brahm in all respects is not reborn even in the present; which means instantly, in this very life by doing proper bhakti (after finding a Complete Guru, a Tattavdarshi Saint) becomes liberated.

Arbitrary Way of Worship is Futile

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 24, it is stated that to reach Aatm-tattav (to know the truth about self) some through Aatm-Dhyaan (meditation), somethrough Gyan yog [ yog of knowledge] (only by singing praises and studying scriptures) and others through Karm yog (yog of actions) do aatm darshan {see the self}. Because to attain the Supreme God, Purna Brahm, one’s self has to be purified. Its methods are decribed above. Consider self-purification as preparation of a field (Kshetr). If the seed of Satyanaam is not sown in it and Saarnaam-like seedling is not planted, then also only self-purification is not enough i.e. there is no liberation. Therefore Kaal God does not give any information about Satyanaam. He tells jaap of only one syllable Omkaar (Om) mantra. This is a mantra (seed). By this mantra only heaven-great heaven and then birth-death can be achieved i.e. there is no complete liberation. Here, has given knowledge about the mango plant (Purna Brahm-Purna Purush) but have seed (mantra-naam) of babool (Kaal-Brahm). Therefore living beings are not able to attain the fruit (complete liberation) of mango and in the end, when Kaal roasts them on Tapatshila (the hot piece of rock), at that time they repent; what can they do then?

Kabir, karta tha to kyon rhya, ab kar kyon pachhtaay |
Bovae ped babool ka, aam kahaan se khaay ||

Literacy is not Essential for Bhakti

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 25, has said that but others devotees who are not themselves learned worship on hearing from others and those who follow the path on hearing (shruti paraayanH), if their bhakti is in accordance with a Complete Saint (do bhakti of Satnaam and Saarnaam), cross beyond death (birth-death), become iberated even if they are not learned; which means that it is not necessary to be literate i.e. learned for devotion and liberation (bhakti-mukti). His way of worship should be in accordance with the scriptures.

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 26,it is mentioned that Oh Arjun! Whatever moving and non-moving beings are there, know them to be born from the union of Kshetr (body-like field) and Kshetragya (Brahm). Because the power of Purna Purush, SatPurush only is operating this puppet of earth etc five elements, and Kaal by union with his Prakriti (Durga) gives rise to living beings.

Only He is Fully Knowledgeable Who Only Considers the Supreme God to be Immortal

The purport of Adhyay 13 Shlok 27 is that he (sadhak), who knows the Supreme God (Purna Brahm) as immortal, knows it correctly that a living being appears to be undergoing destruction in material body but remains alive in immaterial/subtle body. He is also alive by the power of God. Without His power a living being is inactive. Like, in Devi Bhagwat' MahaPuran, Prakriti Devi (Ashtangi) states that oh Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh! You and all the living beings are working by my power. If I withdraw my power, then you, this world and all the living beings will become zero (helpless). Please refer to Devi Bhagwad' MahaPuran. And this Prakriti (Maya) has obtained power from SatPurush only. Therefore, because of the Supreme God being the basic source of power, it is said that living beings are produced by that same power by Kshetragya (Kaal).

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 28, has said that a worshipper, who considers that same Parmatma (Supreme God) to be situated equally everywhere, is not committing suicide. (Although the sun is far away, its warmth is pervading everywhere in formless state.) Because of having the true knowledge, by acquiring the right path and obtaining naam from a Complete Guru (who is the giver of Purna Brahm’s Satnaam and Saarnaam), becomes liberated. Consequently attains the supreme state (complete liberation). Because instead of doing bhakti of the Complete God, SatPurush, by doing sadhna of the three loks (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiv, Mother Prakriti and kaal-Brahm) the wandering of a living being in the 84 lakh births is not abolished. Therefore this way of worship is useless. All the living beings have done this Kaal-sadhna many times. Obtained the good ranks of Indra, Kuber, Ish (position of God; Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiv) etc numerous times by Kaal (Brahm) sadhna. But because of not finding a Complete Saint did not come to know about the Supreme God (Parmeshwar). Therefore did not obtain the best way of worship and did not become completely liberated (did not attain the supreme state).

In the entire Adhyay 13, the information of the Supreme God has been given that by bhakti of that God a living being can attain complete liberation i.e. eternal liberation. But in Gita Ji, how should one do bhakti of the Purna Parmatma? this information is given nowhere. Only a Complete Saint (Satguru) i.e. a Tattavdarshi Saint can give that information whose description is in Gita Adhyay 4 mantar 34. Therefore it is said in Gita Ji Adhyay 13 Shlok 28 that he who has become aware of the real state of that God (aatmna, aatmanm', na hinasti) is saved from commitiing suicide. It is clear in this that Kaal (Brahm) himself says that if a worshipper does my bhakti, then even I can finish birth and death for some time (till the end of a kalp). Even my bhakti should be done rising above the three gunas (Brahma-Rajgun-Brahma, Vishnu-Satgun-Vishnu and Shiv-Tamgun-Shiv) by jaap of only one syllable ‘Om’. But for complete liberation, can obtain the bhakti of that Supreme God (Purna Brahm) by taking naam mantra from a Complete Aacharya (Guru) and by faithfully serving him. It is self-evident from this that he who does bhakti of Purna Brahm is saved from committing suicide. It proves that except this bhakti, even doing sadhna of other gods (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiv, gods-goddesses, whose bhakti is already an obstruction in Brahm sadhna, and beyond this sadhna of Brahm-Kaal) is similar to committing suicide i.e. is useless. Its evidence is also in Yajurved Adhyay 40. Kabir Sahib states –

Kabir, jo Yam (Kaal) ko karta (God) bhaakhae (says) |
Tajae sudha (nectar) nar vish (poison) ko chakhae ||

The meaning of this speech is that whichever devotee (sadhak) worships Brahm (Kaal-Yam) regarding him as God, he is tasting poison (poison in form of birth-death and the sufferings in the births of 84 lakh life-forms resulting from Kaal-sadhna) instead of nectar (SatPurush); which means, because of not finding the happiness of the Supreme God is considering the distressed life of Kaal (Brahm) sadhna as happiness. Therefore do sadhna of that Supreme God (Purna Brahm) and let us go to Satlok where there is ocean of happiness i.e. there is no suffering, nor is birth and death.

After Knowing Kshetr (Body), Kshetragya (Brahm) and Kshetri (Supreme God along with soul), a Devotee becomes Liberated from Kaal’s Trap

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 29, it is said that a devotee who understands this that all the actions are being performed under the influence of Prakriti and considers this living being to be innocent, he strives to get across by doing sadhna of the Supreme God and by fighting the case by appointing a Complete Guru as lawyer.

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 30, it is stated that when a devotee sees the diverse nature of all the living beings and their expansion (origin) centred in one only, then he attains that Complete (Purna) / Supreme God (TatH Brahm). The meaning of ‘sees’ is ‘with the eyes of wisdom’. On the basis of fundamental knowledge changing his way of worship and seeking refuge of a Complete Saint (Guru) attains complete liberation. Beacsue he becomes fully aware of Kaal’s (Brahm’s) trap.

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 31, has said that Oh Arjun! Because of being beginningless (always constant / of one character and who is never born) and Nirgun (only formless but with merits), this immortal God, Purna Brahm although residing in the body neither performs any action, nor is tainted/affected/attached. Just as sun’s light falls on every good and bad object but does not get tainted by it; likewise, the Supreme God, performing every task by His formless power, Himself does not appear to be doing anything.

The meaning of Shlok 31 is that just as sun even when situated far away is visible in a pot of water and keeps influencing us with his formless power i.e. warmth. Similarly the Supreme God even when residing in Satyalok dwells in every soul in the form of shadow. Like the radiations of sun produce excessive heat on a concave lens and keeps its natural influence on a convex lens. Similarly a devotee who is in accordance with the scriptures becomes a concave lens, by which he obtains maximum benefit of God’s power and a devotee, who follows arbitrary way of worship by abandoning the injunctions of scriptures, only obtains the results of his actions.

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 32, has said that just as light is pervading everywhere, even then because of being subtle is deatched. Likewise a soul in the body is detached because a soul lives in God just as smell in air. Therefore both are present in the body and the quality of soul is similar to that of God. A soul is in birth-death in form of a living being, but the Supreme God is detached i.e. is immortal.

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 33, it is said that Oh Arjun! Just as one sun illuminates this entire world/lok (brahmand), in the same way, one Purna Parmatma (Purna Brahm) illuminates (makes it powerful as a result of this puppet operates) the entire Kshetr (brahmand-Pind) because the creation of Pind (body-Kshetr) and brahmand is same. Like, one soul gives power to the whole body; similarly, Purna Parmatma gives power to the brahmand.

In Adhyay 13 Shlok 34, has said that those living beings who comprehend the difference between Kshetr (body) and Kshetragya (Brahm) in this way with the eyes of wisdom, they, after gaining freedom from Prakriti (Kaal’s Power-associate-Maya-Ashtangi) go to Purna Brahm i.e. escape from Kaal’s trap. They attain supreme peace (complete liberation). It is clear in Gita Ji Adhyay 13 Shlok 1, 2 that he who knows about Kshetr (body-Pind) is known as Kshetragya, and know me (Kaal) alone as that Kshetragya. Therefore the meaning of Adhyay 13 Shlok 34 is that those who become aware of Kshetr (body) and Kshetragya (Kaal), they go to Purna Parmatma; which means, by abandoning Kaal-sadhna and doing sadhna of Purna Parmatma become free from Maya and Kaal’s trap.

Sat Bhakti Sandesh