7. Gita Chapter 15 Verse 16 – Mortal & Immortal God

Question: - The meaning of Akshar is immortal. In Gita Chapter 15 Verse 16, you have mentioned Akshar Purush also as mortal. Please clarify.

Answer: - This is true that “Akshar” means immortal, but based on the topic, there is another meaning as well. In Gita Chapter 15 Verse 16, it is stated that there are two Purush (Lords) in this world - Kshar and Akshar. These two and all the living beings under them are mortal. No one’s soul dies. Then in Gita Chapter 15 Verse 17, it has been clarified that Purushottam (Supreme God) is someone other than the aforesaid two gods. He only is immortal. He only is actually the immortal who sustains everyone. In Gita Chapter 8 Verse 3, ‘Tat Brahm’ has been called as “Param Akshar Brahm”. ‘Akshar’ means immortal, but here ‘Param Akshar Brahm’ has been said. This also proves that beyond ‘Akshar’ there is ‘Param Akshar Brahm’. In reality, He is immortal.

Evidence: - Like, the age of Brahma ji is said to be 100 years. What is the duration of a year of the gods? Listen! One Chaturyug is of four Yugas (Satyayug, Tretayug, Dwaparyug and Kalyug). Its duration is humans’ 43,20,000 (forty-three lakh twenty thousand) years. The duration of one day of Brahma ji is of 1008 such Chaturyugs and similar is the duration of one night. One month is of 30 such days and nights, and 12 such months form one year of Brahma ji. Brahma ji’s age is of 100 such years.

Age of Shri Vishnu ji is 7 times the age of Shri Brahma ji = 700 years.

Age of Shri Shankar ji is 7 times the age of Shri Vishnu ji = 4900 years.

Age of Brahm (Kshar Purush) = After the death of 70 thousand Shankars, there is death of one Brahm, that is, Kshar Purush dies. This is the duration of one yug of Akshar Purush.

Age of Akshar Purush: - In Gita Chapter 8 Verse 17, it is mentioned that: -

Sahansr yug paryantam ahH yat BrahmnH viduH | 
Raatrim yug sahansraantam te ahoraatra vidH janaaH || (17)

Translation: - Till today, no translator has translated this correctly. Everybody has written – ‘One thousand Chaturyug of Brahma’; this is wrong. 

In the original text, “Sahansr yug” is written, not ‘Sahansr Chaturyug’. Therefore, the translation of Gita Chapter 8 Verse 17 should be: - (BrahmnH) Akshar Purush’s (yat) which (ahH) day is (Sahansryug paryantam) of duration of one thousand yugas and (Ratrim) even the night (Yug Sahansrantam) of duration of one thousand yugas (viduH) know (te) they (ahoraatra) day-night (vidH) know.

Translation: - Those, who know one day of Akshar Purush to be of the duration of one thousand yugas and the night also to be of the duration of one thousand yugas, know day-night.

Meaning: - In this Verse, “Brahma” word is not in the original text, neither is the word “Chatur Yug” written in the original text. There is word “BrahmnH” in it, which means Sachidanand Ghan Brahm, that is, Param Akshar Brahm, but based on the topic, other than ‘Brahm’ the meaning of ‘BrahmnH’ is also ‘ParBrahm’ (Akshar Brahm).

Evidence: - In Gita Chapter 17 Verse 23, the meaning of BrahmnH is written as Sachidanand Ghan Brahm. The translators have translated it correctly. In this Gita Chapter 8 Verse 17, the topic is of age. Therefore, here the meaning of “Brahman” should be “Akshar Brahm”; here information about the age of Akshar Purush is being given. One day of Akshar Purush is of the abovementioned one thousand yugas. {After the death of 70 thousand Shankars, there is death of one Kshar Purush. This is the duration of one yug of Akshar Purush.} The duration of one day of Akshar Purush is of one thousand such yugas, and the night is also of the same duration. One month is of 30 such days and nights, and one year of Akshar Purush is of 12 such months, and the age of Akshar Purush is of 100 such years. After this, he dies. Therefore, in Gita Chapter 15 Verse 16, both Kshar Purush and Akshar Purush have been said to be mortal. In Gita Chapter 15 Verse 17, He who in reality has been called Immortal God, that God does not get destroyed even after the destruction of all the living beings.

Evidence: - It is clear in Gita Chapter 8 Verse 20 to 22 that – That Param Akshar Brahm does not get destroyed even after the destruction of all the living beings.

Example: - 1. Like, there are cups and saucers made of white clay. We know that if they slip from hand and drop on a concrete floor, they break, that is, they are perishable “Kshar”. Consider this to be the state of Kshar Purush.

2. If the second types of cups and saucers are made of steel. They get destroyed after a very long time by rusting. They do not break or perish quickly. Compared to the cups and saucers made of clay, the cups and saucers made of steel are long-lasting. They appear to be imperishable, but they are perishable. In the same way, consider the state of “Akshar Purush”.

3. If the third type of cups and saucers are made of gold, they never perish. They never rust. Consider this to be the state of “Param Akshar Brahm”. He in reality is immortal.

Therefore, based on the topic, the meaning of “Akshar” is also ‘Perishable’; in reality, the meaning of “Akshar” is Immortal God.

For example: - The original text of Gita Chapter 8 Verse 11

Yat Aksharam ved vidH vadanti vishanti yat yatayH veetraagaH | 
Yat ichhantH brahm charyam charanti tat te padam sangrahen pravakshye || (11)

Translation: - In this verse, the meaning of “Akshar” is for the Immortal God. (Ved vidH) Tatvadarshi Saints, that is, Mahatmas who know the essence of the Vedas (yat) whom (aksharam) immortal (vadanti) call (yatayH) worshippers engrossed in worship (veetraagaH) free from attachment (yat) the world in which (vishanti) enter, and (yat) the God whom (ichhantH) desirous worshippers (brahm charyam) brahmcharya, that is, of the disciple tradition (charanti) follow (tat) that (padam) state (te) for you (sangrhen) in brief (prvakshye) will say.

Translation: “Whom the Tatvdarshi saints, that is, Mahatmas who know the essence of the Vedas, call Immortal; the world in which worshippers engrossed in worship, who are free from attachment, enter, and the God, whose desirous worshippers follow brahmcharya, that is, the disciple tradition; I will briefly say that state to you.” In this Verse, the meaning of “Akshar” as Immortal God is correct. Kabir ji has stated in Sukshm Ved that –

Guru bin kaahu na paya gyana, jyon thotha bhus chhide moodh kisana | 
Guru bin ved padhe jo praani, samjhe na saar rahe agyani ||

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